Hi guys,

I have been looking everywhere on how to add in covariates to model against Epsilon and Gamma in a multi-season model, and haven't found anything yet.

From my understanding, site specific co-variates can vary from year to year.

In my study I have 148 sites which are surveyed 5 times a year for 8 years. I have 4 site covariates which are central to the hypothesis I am testing, and they vary from year to year at each site. An example is vegetation cover. I would like to model such variables against Epsilon and Gamma.

In the createPao function, it says "data frame for unit-specific covariates (e.g., habitat, elevation, etc.) with 1 row per unit (so nrow(unitcov) == nrow(data))". It doesn't say how to treat Epsilon and Gamma covariates so I have assumed it would be supplied as one variable for each column, and therefore with 148 sites over 8 years, each column for each variable would contain 1,184 rows, just like in covariates for detection probability, each row is a variable, and in this instance it is 148*5*8 = 5,920 rows for each covariate.

However, I cannot get any models to run with a Pao object where the site covariates are included in the way I have described above.

Any ideas on what I am missing? Any help or advice would be hugely appreciated!

Thanks in advanced.

Kind regards,

Chad